NPGS  : 9 nm Ice Lithography

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This is a TEM image of three-bladed 5 nm thick Pd features written by NPGS on the planar top surface of a free-standing 60 nm thick Si3N4 membrane. The fabrication technique used was "Ice Lithography" developed at Harvard University. The technique is described in the papers "Ice Lithography for Nanodevices", Nano Lett. 2010, 10, 5056-5059 and "Nanopatterning on Nonplanar and Fragile Substrates with Ice Resists", Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 1018-1021.
This is an SEM image showing the word "ICE" written into an amorphous ice layer which has been deposited in-situ onto a sample in the SEM controlled by NPGS. Cr/Au was deposited on top of the ice before imaging.

Images used by permission, Copyright (c) 2010, Harvard University